Was at from immediately

New York (CNN) — Adrianne Haslet-Davis life as a dancer was shattered last year at the Boston Marathon bombings. She and her husband Adam, who had just returned from a tour in Afghanistan with the Air Force, were steps away from the second blast.
I felt the direct impact and it immediately blew off (part of) my left foot, she said.
Before Haslet-Davis could even see the damage the bomb had done, her husbands reaction confirmed her fears.
I remember him picking up my foot and looking and just screaming a scream that you never want to hear a loved one scream, she recalled.
click here.

Org niz tion –

(CNN) — Children in Asian countries are on average better problem solvers than their European and American peers, according to a new study by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development.
In 2012 the organization tested more than 85,000 15-year-olds in 44 countries and economies on their problem solving skills, testing their ability to explore limitations or obstacles and to understand information given to them.
While Singapore, Japan, China and Korea were among the top-performing economies, the United States scored just above the average and Russia and Israel lagged behind with lower-than-average scores.

Top 25 in problem solving

1. Singapore

2. Korea

3. Japan

4. China*

5. Canada

6. Australia

7. Finland

8. United Kingdom

9. Estonia

10. France

11. Netherlands

12. Italy

13. Czech Republic

14. Germany

15. United States

16. Belgium

OECD Average

17. Austria

18. Norway

19. Ireland

20. Denmark

21. Portugal

22. Sweden

23. Russian Federation

24. Slovak Republic

25. Poland

*Combined results of Macao, HK, Shanghai, Chinese Taipei

Source: OECD Pisa 2012

The OECD says ability to crack complex problems is key to the economic success in the future.
Todays 15-year-olds with poor problem-solving skills will become tomorrows adults struggling to find or keep a good job, said Andreas Schleicher, acting director of education and skills at the OECD.
The problems in the test were designed to be similar to those faced by many workers in every day situations — such as using an unfamiliar mobile phone or a ticket-vending machine.
The report says one in 10 workers faces such hurdles every day. But the skills become even more important in the sectors that drive developed economies — highly skilled managerial and technical occupations.
The pupils were also asked to consider situations involving a number of alternatives and constraints to make a decision — for example choosing the right pain killer given sufficient details about the patient, their complaints and the available pain killers.
In another parts, students had to solve scheduling problems for projects such as building a house or generating a flight schedule for an airline.
One question asked the children to plan a seating plan for a birthday party according to the wishes of the individual party guests.
Try to solve it here:

(See the answers here.)
The results suggested that one in five students in the OECD countries is only able to solve very straightforward problems — if any — provided they refer to familiar situations, such as choosing from a catalog of furniture, showing different brands and prices, the cheapest models to furnish a room.
But the same students failed when put in new situations and asked to solve unfamiliar problems.
The report says this is a consequence of education focused on various sets of rules, such as the rules of algebra. While algebra is important, the reports points out that in real world, applying the rules of mathematics is only the second part of finding a solution to a problem.
The first step — the step computers cant do — involves examining the messy set of facts in a real-world problem to determine which set of algebraic rules to apply, it says.
To avoid turning pupils into robots governed by a strict set of rules, teachers should encourage their students to think about skills they learned in one class — such as reading and mathematics, and apply them when trying to solve a problem in biology or history.
Read more: Shanghai teens top international education ranking

Opinion: What Asian schools can teach the rest of the world

Recognized u s are escort cook

or view results
Germany announced it recognized Bitcoin as private money — but until more central banks, like the U.S. Federal escort Reserve, back it, Bitcoin will remain a niche digital payment option, warns Cook.
One key country that Bitcoin enthusiasts and analysts have been closely watching is China.
The Chinese are the big, big domino to fall. If the Chinese get behind it, then it will become a part of an Internet revolution, says Cook.
But last Thursday the Peoples Bank of China placed a ban on financial institutions handling the money after stipulating that the virtual cash had no legal status.
With yet another hurdle now in place for Bitcoin, Cook believes its widespread adoption is a little optimistic.
Certainly, you can believe that the future of Internet commerce will involve these kind of instantaneous payment methods. I have no doubt about that — but people want simplicity.
At the moment, the Bitcoin experiment doesnt offer simplicity. It complicates matters by people having to understand another way of doing things.
Infographic: What is Bitcoin?

Toppled died travel watch

(CNN) — Niger has extradited Moammar Gadhafis son Saadi, who has been transferred to a jail in Tripoli, Libya, the Libyan government said Thursday.
The North African country had been seeking the handover of Saadi Gadhafi, who fled across the border to Niger when rebel forces toppled his father in a NATO-backed uprising in 2011.
He was handed to Libya and is now in the custody of the Libyan judicial police, the Libyan government said on its Facebook page.
It thanked the leader of its southern neighbor for his cooperation.
Saadi, one of Gadhafis seven sons, was a professional soccer player and businessman before his fathers downfall. Unlike his brother, Saif al-Islam, Gadhafis heir apparent, he is not wanted by the International Criminal Court in The Hague, Netherlands, on charges of war crimes.

2012: Gadhafi mansion to be returned to Libya

In late 2011, rebel forces captured Saif al-Islam, who remains in a militia hands in the small western mountain town of Zintan, Libya.
Niger handed over Saadi Gadhafi after Libyan authorities provided evidence of communications and practices targeting Libyas security and aimed at destabilizing Libya, Libyan Prime Minister Ali Zeidan told Libyan television.
In February 2012, the younger Gadhafi made a televised phone call warning of an imminent uprising in Libya, saying he was in regular contact with people in the country who were unhappy with the new authorities.
Authorities in Niger had warned him after that incident. He had been staying under tight regulation, including house arrest.
Pictures of Saadi Gadhafi, 40, wearing a blue uniform as his head was shaved circulated widely on social media.
Niger had previously refused to hand him over, with some officials saying he could face the death penalty in Libya.
He reportedly resided in a secured guesthouse in Nigers capital, Niamey, after fleeing across the Sahara desert.
A leading human rights group questioned why he had been handed over.
The authorities in Niger should explain why they were convinced that Saadi Gaddafi would not be mistreated and would get a fair trial, said Sarah Leah Whitson, Middle East and North Africa director at Human Rights Watch.
She called for Libyan officials to bring him quickly to trial and protect him from inhumane treatment.
Seeking Gadhafi supporters
Since the end of the conflict that came with Moammar Gadhafis capture and killing in October 2011, Libyas government has sought the extradition of family members and ex-officials.
Several of Gadhafis other sons were killed during the rebellion.
Saif al-Arab died in a NATO airstrike in spring 2011, and Khamis, who led the elite and widely feared Khamis brigade, was reported killed during the fighting. He died in a battle in northwestern Libya that August.
Around the time of his death, troops commanded by Khamis Gadhafi killed an estimated 150 captive civilians during a retreat, hurling grenades and spraying bullets into a building full of men they had promised to release, a survivor said.
Another son, once national security adviser, Mutassim, was killed near the Libyan leaders last stronghold of Sirte in October 2011.
The former dictators wife, Safia, fled with sons Mohammed, Hannibal and daughter Aisha to neighboring Algeria in late August 2011, along with extended family members.
They reportedly left there for Oman, where they were granted asylum.
2012: Gadhafis son seeks travel ban waiver, lawyer says
2011: Saadi Gadhafi arrives in Niger as Libyan troops seek to strangle Sirte

CNNs Jomana Karadsheh contributed to this report.

Bad in west

(CNN) — French soccer star Nicolas Anelka has been given a five-match ban and fined £80,000 ($130,000) by theDecember 28, 2013
Known as Dieudonne, he has popularized the quenelle gesture in France and faces investigation by the Paris prosecutors office for his controversial stand-up routine.
During a performance, he said of a prominent Jewish journalist: Me, you see, when I hear Patrick Cohen speak, I think to myself: Gas chambers … too bad (they no longer exist).
Anelka has seven days to appeal the decision.
The Independent Regulatory Commission stated it will reveal how it arrived at its decision in due course.
Read more: Anti-Semitism row shines light on fractured French society
Read more: West Brom lose sponsors over Anelka row

Responsibility far team well

(CNN) — Russias stand off with Ukraine might be spilling over into the sporting arena with the idea floated for Fabio Capellos team to be barred from contesting Junes World Cup, but the UEFA president believes this would be a travesty for the players who worked so hard to qualify for the finals in Brazil.
Ukrainian officials and Western diplomats accuse Russia of sending thousands of troops into the Crimea region in the past week — a claim Russia has denied.
Earlier this week, an unnamed European Union official was reported to have told a BBC journalist that his organization may try to expel Russia from the 2014 finals.
I dont know why 11 players would not be allowed to play at the World Cup. Where is their responsibility? Michel Platini told CNN.
Read: Is Ukraine splitting?
Why dont you (shut down) the Embassy? Embassies are still in the country.

Ukraines PM defiant and passionate

Senator: Putins ambitions like Hitlers

Ukraine crisis

New Russia sanctions wont have much effect

Ukrainian PM urges Russia to pull back

Platini might now be an administrator, but he speaks from personal experience of how politics is never far away from sport.
The former France international had a similar decision to make when considering whether to contest the 1978 World Cup or not.
There were calls from various quarters to boycott the finals because of the repressive measures being undertaken by the military junta, which took charge in a coup in March 1976 and would rule until 1983.
One of the most infamous periods in Argentinas history followed, as thousands of individuals — primarily with left wing leanings — disappeared during the Dirty War.
As the South American nation prepared to host its only World Cup to date, calls for a potential boycott were led by the Dutch whose team — perhaps ironically — would not just attend the event but reach the final as well.
Amnesty International was also a prominent campaigner as was a group in France called COBA, the French acronym for the Committee for the Boycott of the World Cup in Argentina, who wanted the competition scrapped altogether.
Read: Former dictators found guilty of baby-stealing
Despite the pressure, Platini — who was just 20 at the time — chose to play.
Its always better to go and explain what you think is good rather than boycott, said the UEFA president.
I think its better to explain that you are not happy, which is the same opinion I had in 1978 when I was in Argentina for the World Cup, added the 58-year-old.
I thought it was better to go and explain that we were not happy with what was happening in Argentina.
It could be the same in Russia.
The Ukrainian Paralympic team is facing an equally tough choice as to whether it will boycott the Sochi Games or not.
Ukraines sports minister has already announced a personal boycott and as the tense diplomatic and military standoff continues with Russia, its possible the whole team could follow suit.
Read: Ukraine needs worlds support
Should they do so, such a move could overshadow Fridays Opening Ceremony.
In addition to Ukraines sports minister, politicians from Germany, Britain, the Netherlands, Canada and Poland are among those who have already said they will stay away.
Earlier this week, the White House canceled a presidential delegation to the Paralympic Games.
On Thursday, Germany announced it would not send governmental representatives in order to make a very clear political signal to Russia, according to disabilities commissioner Verena Bentele.
Ukraine Paralympic Committee spokeswoman Natalia Garach told CNN a decision on whether the Ukrainian team will boycott Sochi will be announced at a press conference at 0930 GMT on Friday.

İn long to sunday

(CNN) — From a sheep ranch in Western Australia comes the oldest slice of Earth we know.
Scientists say they have dated an ancient crystal called a zircon to about 4.4 billion years, making it the earliest confirmed piece of the planets crust. The findings — the first to describe the zircon — were published in the journal Nature Geoscience on Sunday.
This is the oldest and the best dated of all the crystals that have been reported, said John Valley, lead study author and professor in the Department of Geoscience at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
This crystal is a translucent red, Valley said, but glows blue when bombarded with electrons. At 400 micrometers long, its biggest dimension is just a tad larger than a house dust mite, or about four human hairs.
The crystal was found in an arid region north of Perth, Australia, in a low range of hills called the Jack Hills, in 2001.
Scientists say the crystals chemistry — specifically, the ratio of oxygen isotopes within it — suggests that the temperatures on Earth 4.4 billion years ago would have supported liquid water, and therefore perhaps life. Two isotopes of an element are considered different if they contain different numbers of neutrons.

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Twitter: @CNNLightYears

What weve learned is that the Earth cooled much more quickly that people had thought, Valley said. The surface formed a crust much more quickly than people thought.
A brief history of Earth
Our planet is thought to be about 4.5 billion years old, but the oldest fossils are about 3.5 billion years old. That doesnt necessarily mean that no life existed before that time, but no direct evidence has been found yet.
The first rocks that have been found deposited by water are about 3.8 billion years old, Valley said.
But very little is known about the first 600 million years or so of the planets history, known as the Hadean Eon because it was thought to be hell-like, Valley said.
The leading theory is that Earth was bombarded by meteors in its early history. It took a big hit from an object the size of Mars about 4.5 billion years ago, leading to the formation of the moon. These impacts vaporized the Earths crust and formed a super-hot magma ocean.
Evidence including this zircon suggests that within the first 100 million to 200 million years of its existence, our planet cooled enough to make crust. Steam from the atmosphere condensed to make oceans.
Once you know that there were oceans, its very reasonable that there would have been life that early — even when it was only 200 million years old, Valley said.
How they did the study
Valley and colleagues reported on a different crystal from early Earth in 2001 from the same Jack Hills area. But there had been an open question regarding that crystal and others about how to determine the age.
The standard method of dating such rocks involves looking at the radioactive decay of uranium atoms to lead. But if the lead has moved within the crystal over time, this could lead to a faulty estimate of age. If lead has migrated away from the area of the rock being tested, that could make the rock appear younger than it is, or older if lead has concentrated itself.
In this new study, researchers used a technique called atom-probe tomography, which allows scientists to image single atoms of lead and determine the isotope ratio.
Scientists found that clumps of lead atoms had formed 1 billion years after the zircon crystallized. These clusters are tiny, about 5 to 10 nanometers in diameter.
All that means that the lead atoms hadnt moved enough to thwart scientists existing methods of determining the crystals age, Valley said. They determined that age to be 4.4 billion years old.
Although incredibly laborious, their analytical technique can be applied to not only additional terrestrial zircons but also to zircons from meteorites and lunar samples, to perhaps tease out a detailed thermal history of magmatism and impacts, Samuel Bowring, professor of geology at Massachusetts Institute of Technology, wrote in an accompanying article in Nature Geoscience.
Meanwhile, on Mars
Earth and Mars formed around the same time in the solar system. Just as scientists are analyzing the chemical composition of rocks on Earth to learn about our planets history, NASAs Curiosity rover is doing the same on Mars.
But one can only do so much via robot. NASA is planning a 2020 rover mission that may be able to collect samples for later delivery to Earth.
There, we may find even more extraordinary gems — red or otherwise.

Sister said police live

Pretoria, South Africa (CNN) — Track star Oscar Pistorius broke down in court Thursday, the fourth day of his murder trial, as a neighbor described the grisly scenes when he tried to save the athletes girlfriend after a fatal shooting on Valentines Day 2013.
The amputee sprinter, 27, nicknamed Blade Runner, has pleaded not guilty to all four counts against him, saying the killing of model Reeva Steenkamp, 29, was a tragic error and he mistook her for an intruder.
In graphic testimony, witness Johan Stipp, a doctor who lived close by, said he went to Pistorius residence after hearing shots fired. He said he saw Steenkamp mortally wounded, her brain tissue mixed with blood and Pistorius praying for her to live.
I remember the first thing he said when I got there was, I shot her, I thought she was a burglar and I shot her, Stipp told the court in Pretoria.
He said he had arrived and found Steenkamps body lying at the bottom of the stairs. Pistorius was bent over her body with his left hand over her right groin and two fingers of his right hand in her mouth as he tried to clear her airway.

Defense pokes holes in witness credibility

Pistorius cries during graphic testimony

Stipp tried to assist and said he found no signs of pulse in her neck, no peripheral pulse nor breathing movements.
As the doctor described the details of her injuries to the court, Pistorius broke down with his head in his hands. He was also seen convulsing but then recovered and wiped his face and nose with a handkerchief.
Stipp, who said he had trained in the army with assault rifles and 9 mm pistols — the gun that killed Steenkamp — said he had been surprised to hear no ambulance had been called when he arrived. He left after it did.
Lawyers are battling over whether the world-famous athlete killed his girlfriend on purpose or by mistake when he fired four bullets through a closed bathroom door at her.
He wanted her to live
Stipp told the court he did not realize Pistorius lived in the house until the day after the shooting when his wife told him.
The doctor was later cross-examined by defense attorney Barry Roux, who has been working toward establishing that Pistorius was the one heard screaming after the shots were fired.
Roux said he had consulted three specialists and the autopsy and asked Stipp: That person after the shots would not have been able to scream. That person would be nonresponsive, does that make sense to you as a medical doctor?
It does, Stipp replied.
The prosecution interjected, saying Steenkamp could have screamed after the first shot. Earlier in the week, prosecutor Gerrie Nel, reading a report from an expert, told the court that of the four bullets fired toward Steenkamp the fourth bullet hit her in the head. She then died.
Pistorius sat impassively during the exchange between Roux and Stipp. He leaned forward, his head down in his hand, as his attorney asked Stipp if the athlete had wanted Steenkamp to live.
He definitely wanted her to live, yes, Stipp replied. He looked sincere to me. He was crying; there were tears on his face.
After the court adjourned for the day Thursday, Pistorius was in tears as his sister consoled him.
Witness grilled over notes
Earlier Roux had cross-examined another neighbor who testified that he heard shouting from Pistorius house before the shooting.
Charl Johnson, husband of the trials first witness, was back on the stand after the defense team wanted to retrieve notes he had taken in the weeks after the shooting. Roux grilled Johnson about the notes such as the screams did not sound like fighting but more like the panic and distress calls of being attacked.
Roux established that Johnson and his wife, Michelle Burger, thought they were hearing noise from a house break-in and not from an act of domestic violence. Nel said Roux was taking individual sentences out of context.
Johnson also testified he owns the same caliber gun as the one that killed Steenkamp and he has fired a firearm before and knows what it sounds like. When Roux asked if he has heard it from the distance of one house to another, he said did not have a similar experience to relate it to but was convinced he knew what the noise sounds like regardless of distance.
Defense pokes holes
The prosecution has put up several witnesses who live near Pistorius and say they heard shouting before the four gunshots that night, while his defense attorney has grilled them relentlessly to raise doubts about their version of events.

Pistorius trial day 3: Winners, losers

Steenkamps mother faces Pistorius

Roux on Wednesday said he had no doubt that Johnson believed what he was saying — but that whether what he was saying was true was a different question.
The defense only has to show that there is reasonable doubt Pistorius intentionally killed Steenkamp.
Judge Thokozile Matilda Masipa will decide whether Pistorius is innocent or guilty. South Africa does not have jury trials.
Johnson and his wife have testified to hearing shouts from Pistorius house before a series of gunshots around 3 a.m. Johnson told investigators he and his wife didnt discuss their versions of events with each other. But on the stand, Johnson said he did discuss how many shots he and his wife heard and the timing of those shots.
You and your wife could just as well have stood together in the witness box, Roux remarked. For witnesses to be considered reliable, they have to maintain independent versions of events, Roux said. You failed, Mr. Johnson, he said.
The lawyer then questioned Johnson on whether what he heard that night was indeed gunshots. Roux said the sounds could have been Pistorius trying to break down the bathroom door with a cricket bat.
Pleading not guilty

Pistorius neighbors grilled over screams

Pistorius trial day 2: Highlights

Lawyers had briefly detoured Wednesday into another of the four charges Pistorius faces, related to the discharge of a gun he was holding in a crowded restaurant in Johannesburg about a month before the killing.
Pistorius pleaded not guilty Monday to one charge of murder and a firearms charge associated with Steenkamps killing as well as the two gun indictments unrelated to her death.
The trial is expected to take at least three weeks.
In South Africa, premeditated murder carries a mandatory life sentence, with a minimum of 25 years. Pistorius also could get five years for each gun indictment and 15 years for the firearms charge.
If he isnt convicted of premeditated murder, the sprinter could face a lesser charge of culpable homicide, a crime based on negligence, and could be looking at up to 15 years on that charge, experts said.
Picture of a dream couple
Pistorius and Steenkamp were a young, attractive, high-profile couple popular in South Africas social circles.
Pistorius, whose Blade Runner nickname reflects the special prostheses he uses while running, won six Paralympic gold medals and became the first double-amputee runner to compete in the Olympics, in London in 2012.
Cover girl Steenkamp, who was soon to star in a TV reality show, was on the cusp of becoming a celebrity in her own right. But on February 14, 2013, Steenkamp lay lifeless in a pool of blood on the floor of her boyfriends house in an upscale gated community in Pretoria.
Moments before, Pistorius said, he had pointed his 9 mm pistol toward an upstairs toilet room and fired four bullets through the locked door.
In court documents, Pistorius has said he heard a noise from the bathroom in the middle of the night and — feeling vulnerable without his prosthetic legs on — charged toward the bathroom on his stumps. He has said he shot through the toilet door to protect himself and Steenkamp.
I felt a sense of terror rushing over me, he said in his court affidavit. There are no burglar bars across the bathroom window, and I knew that contractors who worked at my house had left the ladders outside.
It filled me with horror and fear of an intruder or intruders being inside the toilet. I thought he or they must have entered through the unprotected window. As I did not have my prosthetic legs on and felt extremely vulnerable, I knew I had to protect Reeva and myself.
Prosecutors are painting a different picture. They say the pair had an argument and that Steenkamp locked herself in the toilet.
At last years bail hearing, the state said Pistorius put on his prosthetic legs, collected his gun from under the bed and walked down the hall leading from the bedroom to the bathroom before unloading a flurry of shots through the door.
Pistorius is not claiming self-defense; he is claiming to have been mistaken about his need for self-defense. He is denying he intentionally, unlawfully killed Steenkamp. He has never denied killing her.
The case has put the spotlight on South Africas rampant gun violence and high crime rates.
Roughly 45 people are murdered every day, according to police statistics, and the number of home burglaries is up 70% in the last decade.
In 2012, more than half of South Africans told the countrys police force they were afraid of having their homes broken into. In his affidavit, Pistorius said he had been the victim of violence and burglaries before, including death threats.
READ: Witness recounts accidental shooting in restaurant
READ: South Africas legal system in the spotlight
READ: Defense attorney quizzes neighbor over screams
READ: In full: Pistorius affidavit to court

CNNs Nic Robertson, Emily Smith, Robyn Curnow, Nick Thompson, Ashley Fantz and Susannah Cullinane contributed to this report.

Pioneering until this plastic

Frankfurt, Germany (CNN) — Call him Charlie, Charles, Chuck — whatever you want. Its all okay with him.
Beaming a warm smile from beneath his push-broom mustache, the softly spoken 74-year-old doesnt strike you as a pioneering innovator — the man responsible for a breakthrough thats now driving forward the world of manufacturing.
But Chuck Hull — in this kind of environment, its usually Chuck, he says, as he sits down with CNN in Frankfurt, Germany — is executive vice president and chief technology officer of 3D Systems, a company built on his creation: the 3D printer.

3D printing inventor Chuck Hull

In 1983, Hull was working for a small business that made tough coatings for tables using ultraviolet lamps. When he suggested a new way to use the UV technology — to quickly turn computer designs into working prototypes — Hull was given a little lab to play around in during his evenings and weekends.
Hull experimented for months, on his own with a plastic-y gloop — then one night, something emerged…
CNN: When you began, what materials exactly were you using?
Hull: The class of materials is called photopolymers and these are typically acrylic-based materials that would be liquid until theyre hit with — lets say — an ultraviolet light. Then, they instantly turn solid. So, you have a vat of this liquid and a point of ultraviolet light, and you turn it into a solid piece of plastic.
And thats the basic method?
Thats the basic methodology — thats stereolithography. Thats never changed.
Who was the first person you showed it to?
Er, my wife. I got a good part and called her up, got her out of her pajamas, told her to come down to the lab and see this.

The whole premise of this technology has been to foster creativity…
Chuck Hull

What did she say?
This had better be good! (Laughs.)
Explore: The 3D printing revolution
And then, when did you see 3D printing take off?
Well, its really blossomed just in the last few years — in the sense of really rapid growth and recognition. Theres a lots of things that contributed to that, I think: a lot of the medical applications catch peoples imagination; certainly the maker movement, with low-cost machines getting hobbyists interested in inventing and building using 3D printing.
How did the process develop into what it is today?
One of the most significant [changes] is the basic accuracy you can achieve: because [the materials] cure from a liquid to a solid, they tend to shrink and they can distort. So as you build these 3D parts you get some inaccuracies and warp-age. But that chemistry has been vastly improved, so theres almost no distortion now. Also the physical properties: initially the materials were really brittle — they would break easily. Nowadays you get really good, tough plastic materials.

Well, its really blossomed just in the last few years — in the sense of really rapid growth and recognition
Chuck Hull

I hear the word democratization used about 3D printing. Is that important to you?
The whole premise of this technology has been to foster creativity, and change in product design and manufacturing, and so forth. At the individual level, I think theres a great kind of pent up need: weve got into the computer age and everything is on a screen or remote, weve kind of missed the tangible result. This is a means to convert something on the computer to reality in a straightforward way.
Read: 3-D printing tries to find a home
Could you have imagined all this?
(Laughs.) Not at the consumer level. I was always thinking in terms of design engineers — in terms of their expensive CAD computers and so forth.
What do you think the industry is worth now?
I think, well, in terms of the total goods and services, its about $3 billion annually and its actually growing at a rapid rate.

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Are there limits to what 3D printing can do?
Theres limits to everything. So, the kind of traditional limits of 3D printing have been: material properties, speed, making millions of things. But all the competitive companies are just constantly pushing those limits, so if youre projecting the future, it looks like these limits are going to be beat down over the next couple of years.
Read: Victorias Secret model wears 3-D printed wings
What has surprised you most?
To me, some of the medical applications. I didnt anticipate that, and as soon as I started working with some of the medical imaging people, it became pretty clear that this was going to work. But, you know, they told me, I didnt tell them.
What does your wife say?
(Laughs) Shes probably more enthusiastic than I am, so shes very excited about this whole field.
You made your discovery 30 years ago: how have you felt along these long 30 years? I mean, its exploded hasnt it?
Well, you know Im old enough that I should have retired long ago, but its so interesting that I dont. Its a really interesting journey.
Watch the video above for more from Chuck Hull about his incredible invention and 3D printing today.

The mythical Satoshi Nakamoto has apparently been

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